Law lays down that "the chieftain grades are bound to entertain [a guest] without asking any questions"
At the head of each was an officer called a brugh-fer or brugaid [broo-fer, brewy], a public hospitaller or hosteller, who was held in high honour. He was bound to keep an open house for the reception of certain functionaries—king, bishop, poet, judge, &c. —who were privileged to claim for themselves and their attendants free entertainment when on their circuits:
alling to be entertained; besides which a light was to be kept burning on the faithche [faha] or lawn at night to guide travellers from a distance. The brewy was a magistrate, and was empowered to deliver judgment on certain cases that were brought before him to his house. We have already seen (p. 19) that a court was held in his house for the election of the chief of the tribe.
Keating says that there were ninety brugaids in Connaught, ninety in Ulster, ninety-three in Leinster, and a hundred and thirty in Munster, all with open houses; and though it is not necessary to accept these numbers as strictly accurate, they indicate at least that the houses of hospitality were very numerous. The house of a brewy answered all the purposes of the modern hotel or inn, but with the important distinction, that guests were lodged and entertained with bed and board, free of charge.
"Maelmoedoc O Beollain, comarba (successor) of Columcille at Drumcliff, the richest and most prosperous man of his time in Ireland and the most esteemed, most charitable and most generous, died after a victory of honour and penitence."
|3 grains,||1 ordlach or inch.|
|4 inches,||1 bas, palm, or hand.|
|3 palms,||1 troighid or foot.|
|12 feet,||1 fertach or rod.|
|12 rods or fertachs,||1 forrach.|
|12 forrachs in length |
by 6 forrachs in width,
|1 tir-cumaile(i e. 'cumal-land').|
The single-rein bridle, called srian [sreean] was used in horse-riding. This rein was attached to a nose-band, not at the side, but at the top, and came to the hand of the rider over the animal's forehead, passing right between the eyes and ears, and being held in its place by a loop or ring in the face-band which ran across the horse's forehead and formed part of the bridle-gear.
To pass over many other records, we know that in the great triennial fair of Carman there were three principal markets, one of which was "a market of foreigners selling articles of gold and silver," who sold "gold [ornaments] and noble clothes": so that the fame of this fair found its way to the Continent and attracted foreign merchants with their goods.
"three [principal] markets: viz. a market of food and clothes: a market of live stock and of horses; while a third was railed off for the use of foreign merchants with gold and silver articles and fine raiment to sell." There was the "slope of the embroidering women," who actually did their work in presence of the spectators
He had clasps of gold in his ears (p. 417, supra); and wore a speckled white cloak. He had nine [short] swords, nine [small] silvery shields, and nine balls of gold. [Taking up a certain number of them] he flung them up one by one, and not one of them does he let fall to the ground, and there is but one of them at any one time in his hand. Like the buzzing whirl of bees on a beautiful day was their motion in passing one another."
There was a special officer called uaithne [oohina: lit. a 'pillar'] whose business it was to look after them: or, in the words of the law tract, to "oversee the wretched and the poor," and make sure that they received the proper allowance: like the relieving officer of our present poor laws. He was of course paid for this duty; and it is added that he should bear "attacks on his honour" without his family or himself needing to take any action in the matter—referring to the abuse and insults he was likely to receive from the peevish and querulous class he had in charge.
"Every dead body has in its own right a cow, and a horse, and a garment, and the furniture of his bed; nor shall any of these be paid in satisfaction of his debts; because they are, as it were, the special property of his body." Of course this reserved property passed to the family, and could not be claimed by a creditor or any other outsider.
Ethicus of Istria; whose testimony seems indeed decisive. He made a tour of the three continents, writing a description—or "Topography"— of his journey as he went along, and among other places, he visited the British Islands. From Spain he came direct to Ireland, where, as he says, he spent some time "examining their volumes."
When St. Patrick was in the act of destroying the idol, Cromm Cruach, his graif fell out of his mantle into the heather, where he had some difficulty in finding it afterwards.
In Irish law, hospitality was compulsory on all householders,
this is how an economy was run without money.
Refusal of somebody entitled to was illegal and punished under the law. citizens could be sued for refusal. Which led to many interesting situations.
Each person, depending on their status, was entitled to different levels of hospitality
An Bruidean [Bree'an]
Islamic Hostelries International
Medieval Islamic hostelries were centres of administration and taxation as were Irish hostelries.
The Irish Hostelry or Bruidean as centre of administration and taxation Breitheamh and entitlement to stay for 5 days the effect of allowing petitions to be made on different days
Hostels combine many functions now separated. Food and drink, social and political activityThe Caravanserai
Land was set aside for the supplying of a public hostelry
Brugh building must be visible and ideally must be placed on a crossroads
Only a brugiu could place his house on a spring. Kings and monasteries also ran public hostelries
the hostelry functioned as the centre of administration.
the equipment was described in the Senchus Mor
What is the ever-full cauldron ?
Answer. A caldron which should be always kept on the fire for every party that should arrive, i.e. the acet-foll caldron, i.e. that which returns in a perfect state whatever is put into it, while every other caldron would dissolve it ; for
although the share of food sufficient for a company should remain in
it till their arrival, it would noithor iitoroase (nor be wasted), and
there would not be more found boiled than what would be sufficient
for the company, and his own proper kind of food if got out of it
for each person :
as, for example, the haunch for the king, bishop, and literary doctor ; a leg for the young chief, the heads for the charioteers, a steak for a queen, a 'croichet'
though long it (the meat) should be there, it does not dissolve until
the class of persons for whom it is intended arrive.
cauldrons spits bacon on the hook.
Oats are the staple grain milk inccluding bainneclabhair a soured milk drink much beloved in Ireland. Pork boiled and then barbecued.